Human Resource Management - Definitions on HRM - Origin of HRM - Objectives of HRM

Behind production of every product or service there is an human mind, effort and man hours (working hours). No product or service can be produced without help of human being. Human being is fundamental resource for making or construction of anything. Today many experts claim that machines and technology are replacing human resource and minimising their role or effort. However, indeed, machines and technology are built by the humans only; they need to be operated or at least monitored by humans. Maybe this could be the reason for companies continouly hunting  for talented, skilled and qualified professionals for further development of  machines and technology, which again have to be controlled or Monitored by humans to bring out products/services.

Among the five Ms of management, i.e., men, money, machines, materials, and methods, HRM deals about the first M, which is men. It is believed that in the five Ms, "men" is the not so easy to manage. This may be so because among the five, "every man is different from other" and they are totally different from the other Ms in the sense that men possess the power to manipulate the other Ms. Whereas, the other Ms are either lifeless or abstract and as such, do not have the power to think and decide what is good for them.

"The automation of factories has already decimated jobs in traditional manufacturing, and the rise of artificial intelligence is likely to extend this job destruction deep into the middle classes, with only the most caring, creative or supervisory roles remaining"
-British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking

It is undisputed fact that humans are being replaced by artificial intelligence which are in the form of robots. But all jobs cannot be handed over to Robots, to say in other words robots have its own limitations and all roles cannot be handled by robots.Though  British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking,Cambridge professor expressed about destruction of middle-class jobs due to raise of artificial intelligence,he still felt that natural intelligence or need for application of human mind is inevitable in certain roles.

Human Resource Management is the process of recruitment and selecting employee, providing orientation and induction, training and development , assessment of employee (performance of appraisal), providing compensation and benefits, motivating, maintaining proper relations with employees and with trade unions, maintaining employees safety, welfare and healthy measures  in compliance with labour laws of the land.

Employment / Labour Laws in India>>

Human: refers to the skilled workforce in organization.
Resource: refers to limited availability or scarce.
Management: refers  how to optimize  and make best use of such limited and a scarce resource so as to meet the ordination goals and objectives.

Altogether,  human resource management is the process of proper and maximise utilisation of  available limited skilled workforce. The core purpose of the human resource management is to make efficient use of existing human resource in the organisation. The Best example at present situation is, construction industry has been facing serious shortage of skilled workforce. It is  expected to triple in the next decade from the present 30 per cent, will negatively impact the overall productivity of the sector, warn industry experts.

Every organisations' desire is to have skilled and competent people to make their organisation more effective than their competitors. humans are very important assets for the organisation rather than land and buildings, without employees ( humans ) no activity in the organisation can be done. Machines are meant to to produce more goods with good quality but they should get operated by the human only.

Great Quotations on human resource

"you must treat your employees with respect and dignity because in the most automated factory in the world, you need the power of human mind. That is what brings in innovation. If you want high quality minds to work for you, then you must protect the respect and dignity. "
---Mr N.R. Narayana Murthy, Chairman Emeritus, Infosys Ltd .

“Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education. The human mind is our fundamental resource.”
- John F. Kennedy (35th President of the United States).

“The greatest tragedy in America is not the destruction of our natural resources, though that tragedy is great. The truly great tragedy is the destruction of our human resources by our failure to fully utilize our abilities, which means that most men and women go to their graves with their music still in them.” - Oliver Wendell Holmes.

“The human mind is our fundamental resource.” - John F. Kennedy.

"I emphasize this - no matter how good or successful you are or how clever or crafty, your business and its future are in the hands of the people you hire".  

--- Akio Morita (Late) (Businessman and co-fOunder of Sony Corporation. Japan)
Ref: The Book : MADE IN JAPAN. Page.No.145


Many great scholars had defined human resource management in different ways and with different words, but the core meaning of the human resource management deals with how to manage people or employees in the organisation.

Edwin Flippo defines- HRM as “planning, organizing, directing, controlling of procurement, development, compensation, integration , maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are achieved.”

The National Institute of Personal Management (NIPM) of India has defined human resources – personal management as “that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. Its aim is to bring together and develop into an effective organization of the men and women who make up enterprise and having regard for the well – being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success”.

According to Decenzo and Robbins, “HRM is concerned with the people dimension” in management. Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization is essential to achieve organsational objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of organization – government, business, education, health or social action”.

Origin of HRM
Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being:

“a series of activities which first enable working people and their employing organizations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled" (p. 49).

While Miller (1987) suggests that HRM relates to:

".......those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies directed towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage" (p. 352).

The studies conducted by George Elton Mayo (1880-1949), especially the Hawthorne Studies is credited as the foundation of the Human Relations Movement in management.

Facts [+]    
It's believed that the first personnel management department (later evolved as Human resource management) began at the National Cash Register Co. in the early 1900s, according to an HR Magazine article. After several strikes and employee lockouts, NCR leader John H. Patterson organized a personnel department to handle grievances, discharges, and safety, as well as training for supervisors on new laws and practices.

Human Resource Management

For any organisation to function effectively, it must have resource of men (Human Resource), money, materials and machinery. The resources by themselves cannot fulfill the objectives of an organisation, they need to be collected, co-ordinated and utilised through human resources. And, the effective management of human resources is also vital. Hence, Human Resource Management (HRM) has emerged as a major function in organisations.Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

The administrative discipline of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization.

Human Resource management includes:
  1. Conducting job analyses
  2. Planning personnel needs, and recruitment
  3. Selecting the right people for the job, 
  4. Orienting and training
  5. Determining and managing wages and salaries, 
  6. Providing benefits and incentives, 
  7. Appraising performance
  8. Resolving disputes, 
  9. Communicating with all employees at all levels. Formerly called personnel management.
  10. Maintaining awareness of and compliance with local, state and federal labor laws.
  11. These are also called as functions of human resource management for the purpose of effect you utilisation of human resource.

Facts [+]

The historical rule of thumb for HR staffing requirements is one full-time professional HR person should be hired for every 100 employees. The actual ratio for a business can vary depending upon factors such as the degree of HR centralization, the geographic distribution of the employees served, the sophistication level of the employees, and the relative complexity of the organization.

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is the world's largest HR department. OPM provides HR services for the federal governments workforce of nearly 2.8 million workers. It's staff carry out the tasks to recruit, interview, and promote employees; oversee merit pay, benefits and retirement programs; and ensure that all employees and applicants are treated fairly and according to the law.

The ten "Cs" of human resources management are: cost effectiveness, competitive, coherence, credibility, communication, creativity, competitive advantage, competence, change, and commitment. The ten "Cs" framework was developed by Alan Price in his book "Human Resource Management in a Business Context".

The HR Director is a top-level manager responsible for the administration of all human resource activities and policies. The director oversees compensation, benefits, staffing, affirmative action, employee relations, health and safety, and training/development functions. They also supervise professional human resources staff.

Objectives of HRM

Societal objective.To be socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. The failure of organizations to use their resources for society's benefit may result in restrictions. For example, societies may pass laws that limit human resource decisions. 

Organizational objective. To recognize that HRM exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it is only a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. Simply stated, the department exists to serve the rest of the organization.
Functional objective.To maintain the department's contribution at a level appropriate to the organisation's needs. Resources are wasted when HRM is more or less sophisticated than the organisation demands. A department's level of service must be appropriate for the organisation it serves. 

Personal objective. To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual's contribution to the organisation. Personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise, employee performance and satisfaction may decline, and employees may leave the organisation.

Nature of Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management involves management functions like planning, organizing, directing and controlling
  • It involves procurement, development, maintenance of human resource
  • It helps to achieve individual, organizational and social objectives
  • Human Resource Management is a multidisciplinary subject. It includes the study of management, psychology, communication, economics and sociology.
  • It involves team spirit and team work.
  • It is a continuous process.

Why Is Human Resource Management Important to All Managers? Why are these concepts and techniques important to all managers? ' Perhaps it's easier to answer this by listing some of the personnel mistakes you don't want to make while man­aging. For example, you don't want to: 
Hire the wrong person for the job 
  • Experience high turnover 
  • Have your people not doing their best 
  • Waste time with useless interviews 
  • Have your company taken to court because of discriminatory actions 
  • Have your company cited under federal occupational safety laws for unsafe practices 
  • Have some employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to others in the organization 
  • Allow a lack of training to undermine your department's effectiveness 
  • Commit any unfair labor practices

Who is HR manager?
The Human Resource Manager is a mid-level position responsible for overseeing human resources activities and policies according to executive level direction. They supervise human resources staff as well as control compensation and benefits, employee relations, staffing, training, safety, labor relations, and employment records.

Key responsibilities of Human Resource  Manager.

Human Resource  Manager is one of the most important key to open a lock hanging on the door of success in an organisation. If an Human Resource  Manager is efficient enough to handle and to take out best from his team members any oragnisation and can achieve more from his target goals. Human Resource manager plays an very important role in hierarchy, and also in between the higher management and low level employees. Stated below are major responsibilities of Human Resource Manager:-

The principal responsibilities of the human resources executive

Formulate and recommend human resource objectives for inclusion in the organization overall objectives.

Objectives help the people who are involved in an organization to work knowing where they want to reach. They are the goals set for people to meet and make the organization successful. Here is where the human resource executive comes in and set these objectives for the staff to follow. By doing this, they make sure people stay in line and do not get out of the line to do other things that are not beneficial to the company or organization.

Identify management problems that can be resolved and opportunities that can be realized through improved effectiveness in human resource management.

Every organization has problems that can make it fail if they are not taken care of. Problems need to be managed and resolved for maximum profits. The human resource department looks for ways to take care of these problems. After identification, they take proper steps into resolving them. An example of a problem would be way of disposing the waste that is gotten after production. They look for ways in which the waste can be disposed without interfering with the lives of those that are near the organizations

Make managers aware of their full responsibilities in the management of the human resources entrusted to them.

Managers are the people who over look different departments in an organization. Sometimes they tend to over use their power and hence they need to be given laid down responsibilities so as to have the very best results in the work place. They are an important people because they put the subordinate staff in line. The human resource department hence help the managers out in knowing what they are supposed to be involved with and how

They also provide the necessary tools, techniques, and methods which foster the development of a business climate conducive to employee innovation and development.

Every organization has specific goals to be achieved depending on what it is about. With this in mind it is important to know that the tools and techniques used are different based on what is to be achieved. For instance road sweeping company would need tools like brooms and dust pans which would not be useful in a bakery company which would mainly make use of cookers and baking equipment. The human resource department spells out the tools, techniques and methods necessary to make the employees work efficiently and feel comfortable while they are at it. It becomes easier for the employees to work where all the necessary tools are provided.

These are just some of the roles of the human resource department in an organization and through these roles; they make the work place run smoothly without any trouble.

Author Bio: More than several years Mark Long has written numerous articles on Human Resource Dubai and Road Sweeping in Dubai. Recently he is researching on human resource process in wish to

Analytics specialists in high demand for HR roles: Study
ET Bureau
May 14, 2018

India has seen 77% growth in specialised analytics professionals employed in human resource functions in the past five years, as an increasing number of companies are turning to analytics to address workforce planning, skills gap and employee retention, according to a study by professional network LinkedIn.

“The overall business landscape and the changing role of HR as a more strategic partner in business are driving the rise of analytics in HR. It is imperative for HR today to give more strategic inputs in business and build a data-driven HR function,” said Irfan Abdulla, director-LinkedIn Talent Solutions and Learning Solutions, India and South Asia.

Compensation and benefits, talent acquisition, talent development and productivity are the established focus areas for use of analytics in the Asia-Pacific region.

In India, 14% of total jobs in HR are analytics based, signifying that companies are increasingly trying to arm their HR functions with analytical capabilities with talent as their focus area, shows the report, titled The Rise of Analytics in HR: An era of Talent Intelligence.

Facts [+]
Human Resources Executive magazine is written primarily for HR vice presidents and directors. The magazine provides news, profiles, and success stories of human resource innovators. Stories cover all areas of human resource management, including personnel, benefits, training and development, HR information systems, relocation, retirement planning, workplace security and health care.

George W. Bush is the first U.S. President to hold an MBA degree. Dartmouth College established the first graduate business school in 1900 offering an advanced degree in commercial sciences, the fore bearer of the modern MBA. Today, more than 100,000 MBA degrees are awarded each year in the U.S. The estimated average cost of an MBA at an accredited institution is about $80,000.

Recruitment & Selection

Factors influencing in creating jobs
Internal Recruitment
External Recruitment
e Recruitment and Job Portals
Employee Selection
Pre-employment Tests
Interview questions in MNCs
Pseudo Scientific Methods of selection
Recruitment Vs selection

Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal Process
Performance Appraisal Rating Factors
Traditional methods of Performance Appraisal
Modern Methods of Performance Appraisal
360 Degrees Performance Appraisal

Training & Development

Training and development
Employee Training Introduction
Need and benefit of Training
Advantages Of Training Programme
3 Employee Training Tips For Managers
Training Process
  • Job Rotation
  • Coaching
  • Job Instruction
  • Committee Assignments
  • Apprenticeship
  • Internship
  • Classroom Lectures
  • Audio-Visual
  • Simulation
  • Vestibule Training
  • Case Studies
  • Role Playing
  • Programmed Instructions
Sensitivity Training
Management Development

Human Resource Planning

Human Resource Planning
Objectives and Benefits of HRP
Human Resource Planning at Different Levels
HRP Process

Job Analysis

Job analysis

Job Analysis and HR Activities
Job Analysis Methods
Stages in the Job Analysis Process

Job Design
Job design
Methods or Techniques of Job Design
Job Rotation
Job Enrichment
Job Enlargement

Job Evaluation
Qualitative Methods of Job Evaluation
Quantitative Methods of Job Evaluation

Employee Integration

CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)Quality of Work Life
Problem Solving Tools Used by Quality Circles,

Employee Motivation

International HRM

Anti-discrimination laws >>