Behind production of every product or service there is an human mind, effort and man hours (working hours). No product or service can be produced without help of human being. Human being is fundamental resource for making or construction of anything. Today many experts claim that machines and technology are replacing human resource and minimizing their role or effort. However, indeed, machines and technology are built by the humans only; they need to be operated or at least monitored by humans. Maybe this could be the reason for companies continuously hunting  for talented, skilled and qualified professionals for continuous development of an organization.

Among the five Ms of management, i.e., men, money, machines, materials, and methods, HRM deals about the first M, which is men. It is believed that in the five Ms, "men" is  not so easy to manage. "every man is different from other" and they are totally different from the other Ms in the sense that men possess the power to manipulate the other Ms. Whereas, the other Ms are either lifeless or abstract and as such, do not have the power to think and decide what is good for them.


Meaning:
Human Resource Management is the process of recruitment and selecting employee, providing orientation and induction, training and development , assessment of employee (performance of appraisal), providing compensation and benefits, motivating, maintaining proper relations with employees and with trade unions, maintaining employees safety, welfare and healthy measures in compliance with labour laws of the land.

Employment / Labour Laws in India>>

Human: refers to the skilled workforce in organization.
Resource: refers to limited availability or scarce.
Management: refers  how to optimize  and make best use of such limited and a scarce resource so as to meet the ordination goals and objectives.

Altogether,  human resource management is the process of proper and maximise utilisation of  available limited skilled workforce. The core purpose of the human resource management is to make efficient use of existing human resource in the organisation. The best example at present situation is, construction industry has been facing serious shortage of skilled workforce. It is  expected to triple in the next decade from the present 30 per cent, will negatively impact the overall productivity of the sector, warn industry experts.

Every organisation has desire to have skilled and competent people to make their organisation best than their competitors. Therefor humans are very important assets for any organisation, although today many tasks have been handing over to the artificial intelligence, they lack judgement skills which cannot be matched with human mind.

"The automation of factories has already decimated jobs in traditional manufacturing, and the rise of artificial intelligence is likely to extend this job destruction deep into the middle classes, with only the most caring, creative or supervisory roles remaining"
-British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking

It is undisputed fact that humans are being replaced by artificial intelligence which are in the form of robots. But all jobs cannot be handed over to Robots, to say in other words robots have its own limitations and all roles cannot be handled by robots.Though  British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking,Cambridge professor expressed about destruction of middle-class jobs due to raise of artificial intelligence,he still felt that natural intelligence or need for application of human mind is inevitable in certain roles.


Great Quotations on human resource

"you must treat your employees with respect and dignity because in the most automated factory in the world, you need the power of human mind. That is what brings in innovation. If you want high quality minds to work for you, then you must protect the respect and dignity. "
---Mr N.R. Narayana Murthy, Chairman Emeritus, Infosys Ltd .


“Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education. The human mind is our fundamental resource.”
- John F. Kennedy (35th President of the United States).


“The greatest tragedy in America is not the destruction of our natural resources, though that tragedy is great. The truly great tragedy is the destruction of our human resources by our failure to fully utilize our abilities, which means that most men and women go to their graves with their music still in them.” - Oliver Wendell Holmes.
“The human mind is our fundamental resource.” - John F. Kennedy.


"I emphasize this - no matter how good or successful you are or how clever or crafty, your business and its future are in the hands of the people you hire".  

--- Akio Morita (Late) (Businessman and co-fOunder of Sony Corporation. Japan)
Ref: The Book : MADE IN JAPAN. Page.No.145


Definitions:


Many great scholars had defined human resource management in different ways and with different words, but the core meaning of the human resource management deals with how to manage people or employees in the organisation.

Edwin Flippo defines- HRM as “planning, organizing, directing, controlling of procurement, development, compensation, integration , maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are achieved.”

The National Institute of Personal Management (NIPM) of India has defined human resources – personal management as “that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. Its aim is to bring together and develop into an effective organization of the men and women who make up enterprise and having regard for the well – being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success”.

According to Decenzo and Robbins, “HRM is concerned with the people dimension” in management. Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization is essential to achieve organsational objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of organization – government, business, education, health or social action”.




Origin of HRM

Human resource management is evolved form Personnel management which was erstwhile management used to manage employees. If one wants to know evolution of personnel management one needs to see the history of centuries and decades of research by physiologists on human human behaviour and their response at particular situations. One among them was Elton Mayo who physiologist from Australia, did many experiments on human behaviour at different situations in 1924. He  strongly believed in work life balance for improving productivity of workers and did emphasis on human relations influence the productivity of workers and finally he has been regarded as father of Human resources management. Going back to roots of evolution Personnel management , Robert Owen was regarded as creator and originator for introducing reforms for workers in his own Lanark cotton mills. He created a principle of 8 hours day work, 8 hours rest and 8 hours sleep. He improved working condition of his works and saw improvement in productivity and also implemented many social and welfare practices for his workers as saw change in productivity and efficiency. Therefore he was regal as father of Personnel management.

It's believed that the first personnel management department (later evolved as Human resource management) began at the National Cash Register Co. in the early 1900s, according to an HR Magazine article. After several strikes and employee lockouts, NCR leader John H. Patterson organized a personnel department to handle grievances, discharges, and safety, as well as training for supervisors on new laws and practices.


Who is responsible for human resource management?
Human resource officer or Manager is responsible for human resource management in the organization.

The primary responsibilities of a human resource manager are:
  1. To develop a thorough knowledge of corporate culture, plans and policies.
  2. To act as an internal change agent and consultant.
  3. To initiate change and act as an expert and facilitator.
  4. To actively involve himself in company’s strategy formulation.
  5. To keep communication lines open between the HRD function and individuals and groups both within and outside the organisation.
  6. To identify and evolve HRD strategies in consonance with overall business strategy.
  7. To facilitate the development of various organisational teams and their working relationship with other teams and individuals.
  8. To try and relate people and work so that the organisation objectives are achieved effectively and efficiently.
  9. To diagnose problems and to determine appropriate solution particularly in the human resources areas.
  10. To provide co-ordination and support services for the delivery of HRD programmes and services.
  11. To evaluate the impact of an HRD intervention or to conduct research so as to identify, develop or test how HRD in general has improved individual or organisational performance.

What is the role of Human resource officer?
He/she is responsible for formulating and designing of Hr policies in compliance with labour laws and sees all Hr related activities staring from hiring to firing of an employees in an aoganisation.
The Human Resource Manager is  responsible for overseeing human resources activities and policies according to executive level direction. They supervise human resources staff as well as control compensation and benefits, employee relations, staffing, training, safety, labor relations, and employment records.


Who would be working for Human resource officer?
  • Recruiter who is responsible filling vacancies by finding candidates and finally placing them.
  • Trainers who is responsible for imparting required skills for performing job and updating new skills and knowledge for perfection and error free.
  • Safety officer who see safety of employees at workplace
  • Welfare officer who sees welfare and healthy measures of employees.
  • Payroll officer who sees salaries, statutory payments & deductions as taxes and other incentives.
  • Counsellor who acts as friend for employees so as to resolve any dispute and issues between employees. He also acts personal friend in giving suggestions for personal issues which could hamper the efficacy at work place.
  • Medical officer who is qualified doctor responsible for first aid, health care and certification of fitness of employees for working or granting leaves.
  • Insurance officer who see the employees medical policy for securing from diseases and personal accident policy for securing employees  in case of accidents so as avoid burden and risk on company.
  • HR Analyst who sees assessment and evaluation of employees, deciding salaries, designing and improving employee training programmes and measuring work burden on employees in some cases.

Human Resource management deals with following activities in-detailed: 
  1. Conducting job analyses
  2. Planning personnel needs, and recruitment
  3. Selecting the right people for the job, 
  4. Orienting and training
  5. Determining and managing wages and salaries, 
  6. Providing benefits and incentives, 
  7. Appraising performance
  8. Resolving disputes, 
  9. Communicating with all employees at all levels. Formerly called personnel management.
  10. Maintaining awareness of and compliance with local, state and federal labor laws.
  11. These are also called as functions of human resource management for the purpose of effect you utilisation of human resource.

Facts [+]

The historical rule of thumb for HR staffing requirements is one full-time professional HR person should be hired for every 100 employees. The actual ratio for a business can vary depending upon factors such as the degree of HR centralization, the geographic distribution of the employees served, the sophistication level of the employees, and the relative complexity of the organization.
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is the world's largest HR department. OPM provides HR services for the federal governments workforce of nearly 2.8 million workers. It's staff carry out the tasks to recruit, interview, and promote employees; oversee merit pay, benefits and retirement programs; and ensure that all employees and applicants are treated fairly and according to the law.

The ten "Cs" of human resources management are: cost effectiveness, competitive, coherence, credibility, communication, creativity, competitive advantage, competence, change, and commitment. The ten "Cs" framework was developed by Alan Price in his book "Human Resource Management in a Business Context".

The HR Director is a top-level manager responsible for the administration of all human resource activities and policies. The director oversees compensation, benefits, staffing, affirmative action, employee relations, health and safety, and training/development functions. They also supervise professional human resources staff.



Objectives of HRM

Societal objective.To be socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. The failure of organizations to use their resources for society's benefit may result in restrictions. For example, societies may pass laws that limit human resource decisions. 

Organizational objective. To recognize that HRM exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it is only a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. Simply stated, the department exists to serve the rest of the organization.
Functional objective.To maintain the department's contribution at a level appropriate to the organisation's needs. Resources are wasted when HRM is more or less sophisticated than the organisation demands. A department's level of service must be appropriate for the organisation it serves. 

Personal objective. To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual's contribution to the organisation. Personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise, employee performance and satisfaction may decline, and employees may leave the organisation.


Nature of Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management involves management functions like planning, organizing, directing and controlling
  • It involves procurement, development, maintenance of human resource
  • It helps to achieve individual, organizational and social objectives
  • Human Resource Management is a multidisciplinary subject. It includes the study of management, psychology, communication, economics and sociology.
  • It involves team spirit and team work.
  • It is a continuous process.

Why Is Human Resource Management Important to All Managers? Why are these concepts and techniques important to all managers? ' Perhaps it's easier to answer this by listing some of the personnel mistakes you don't want to make while man­aging. For example, you don't want to: 
Hire the wrong person for the job 
  • Experience high turnover 
  • Have your people not doing their best 
  • Waste time with useless interviews 
  • Have your company taken to court because of discriminatory actions 
  • Have your company cited under federal occupational safety laws for unsafe practices 
  • Have some employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to others in the organization 
  • Allow a lack of training to undermine your department's effectiveness 
  • Commit any unfair labor practices



Analytics specialists in high demand for HR roles: Study
ET Bureau
May 14, 2018

India has seen 77% growth in specialised analytics professionals employed in human resource functions in the past five years, as an increasing number of companies are turning to analytics to address workforce planning, skills gap and employee retention, according to a study by professional network LinkedIn.

“The overall business landscape and the changing role of HR as a more strategic partner in business are driving the rise of analytics in HR. It is imperative for HR today to give more strategic inputs in business and build a data-driven HR function,” said Irfan Abdulla, director-LinkedIn Talent Solutions and Learning Solutions, India and South Asia.

Compensation and benefits, talent acquisition, talent development and productivity are the established focus areas for use of analytics in the Asia-Pacific region.

In India, 14% of total jobs in HR are analytics based, signifying that companies are increasingly trying to arm their HR functions with analytical capabilities with talent as their focus area, shows the report, titled The Rise of Analytics in HR: An era of Talent Intelligence.


Facts [+]
Human Resources Executive magazine is written primarily for HR vice presidents and directors. The magazine provides news, profiles, and success stories of human resource innovators. Stories cover all areas of human resource management, including personnel, benefits, training and development, HR information systems, relocation, retirement planning, workplace security and health care.