Off-the-job Methods


Training & Development


Off-the-job training is conducted in a location specifically designated for training. It may be near the workplace or away from work, at a special training center or a resort Conducting the training away from the workplace minimize distractions and allows trainees to devote their full attention to the material being taught- However, off-the-job training programs may not provide as much transfer of training to the actual job as do on-the-job programs.

Many people equate off-the-job training with the lecture method, but in fact a very wide variety of methods can be used.

Definitions:
Employee training at a site away from the actual work environment. It often utilizes lectures, case studies, role playing, simulation, etc. See also on the job training.
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“Off the Job Training” Methods

1. Classroom Lectures: under the off the job methods of training, classroom method or lecture method is well-known to train white collar or managerial level employees in the organisation. under this method employees are called to the room like that of classroom to give training by trainer in the form of lectures. This method is effectively used for the purpose of teaching administrative aspects or on management subject to make aware of procedures and to give instructions on particular topic. 

Advantage – It can be used for large groups. Cost per trainee is low. 

Disadvantages – Low interest of employees. It is not learning by practice. It is One-way communication. No authentic feedback mechanism. Likely to lead to boredom for employees.

2. Audio-Visual: Providing training by way of using Films, Televisions, Video, and Presentations etc. This method of training has been using successfully in education institutions to train their students in subjects to understand and assimilate easily and help them to remember forever. New companies have come up for providing audio visual material for students in their concern subjects. In the corporate sector, mainly in customer care centres employers are giving training to their employees by using audio visuals material to teach how to receive, talk and behaviour with the customer.

Advantages – Wide range of realistic examples, quality control possible. 

Disadvantages – One-way communication, No feedback mechanism. No flexibility for different audience.


3. Simulation: the simulation Method of training is most famous and core among all of the job training methods. in the simulation training method, trainee will be trained on the especially designed equipment or machine seems to be really used in the field or job. But, those equipment or machines are specifically designed for training a trainees were making them ready to handle them in the real field or job.  This method of planning is mostly used  where very expensive machinery or equipment used for performing Job or to handle  that job.


Example:- The simulation method has been using widely  for the purpose of training aeroplane pilots on aeroplane simulator to make them ready to handle an fly  aeroplane. Especially in Air force fighter pilots are getting trained on the jet fighters simulator. because the cost of aeroplane or jet fighter will be very expensive, hence employer may not allow directly to get trained on real equipment to avoid damage to equipment or machine or in sometimes may cause loss of  trainee life. To avoid all such risks by the employer giving training on simulator is safe.  (normally simulators for the purpose of training would be provided by the  manufacturer of original equipment).



4. Vestibule Training: - Mostly this method of training will be used to train technical staff, office staff and employees who deal with tools and machines. Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor by bringing equipments or tools to certain place where training is provided, but not work place. Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job.

vestibule training is provided to employees when new or advanced equipment or tools introduced in to the organisation to do a particular job by using them. For this purpose such equipment is brought to a separate place to give  demonstration and train how to use and that handle  it by employees safely.
 

5. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation in the past in same organisation or somewhere else and trainees are supposed to analyze and give their conclusions in writing. This is another excellent method to ensure full and whole hearted participation of employees and generates good interest among them. Case is later discussed by instructor with all the pros and cons of each option. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data.

6. Role Playing: During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and training. This method is also called ‘role-reversal’, ‘socio-drama’ or ‘psycho-drama’. Here trainees act out a given role as they would in a stage play. Two or more trainees are assigned roles in a given situation, which is explained to the group. There are no written lines to be said and, naturally, no rehearsals. The role players have to quickly respond to the situation that is ever changing and to react to it as they would in the real one. It is a method of human interaction which involves realistic behaviour in an imaginary or hypothetical situation. Role playing primarily involves employee-employer relationships, hiring, firing, discussing a grievance problem, conducting a post appraisal interview, disciplining a subordinate, or a salesman making presentation to a customer.

7. Programmed Instructions: This involves two essential elements: (a) a step-by-step series of bits of knowledge, each building upon what has gone before, and (b) a mechanism for presenting the series and checking on the trainee’s knowledge. Questions are asked in proper sequence and indication given promptly whether the answers are correct.

This programme may be carried out with a book, a manual or a teaching machine. It is primarily used for teaching factual knowledge such as Mathematics, Physics, etc.

8. Management Games With computerized management games, trainees divide into five- or six-person groups, each of which competes with the others in a simulated marketplace. Each group typically must decide, for example.
  1. how much to spend on advertising.
  2. how much to produce,
  3. how much inventory to maintain, and
  4. how many of which product to produce.
Usually, the game itself compresses a two- or three-year period into days, weeks, or months. As in the real world, each company team usually can't see what decisions (such as to boost advertising) the other firms have made, although these decisions do affect their own sales.
Management games can be effective. People learn best by being involved, and the games can gain such involvement. They help trainees develop their problem-solving skills, as well as to focus attention on planning rather than just putting out fires. The groups also usually elect their own officers and organize themselves. This can develop leadership skills and foster cooperation and teamwork.


Advantages of Off-the-Job Training
  • Trainers are usually experienced enough to train
  • It is systematically organized
  • Efficiently created programs may add lot of value

Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training:
  • It is not directly in the context of job
  • It is often formal
  • It may not be based on experience.
  • It is expensive.
  • Trainees may not be much motivated
  • It is artificial in nature.