Wages Definition

Wages or Salary (Indian context)

Regulatory Mechanisms in Industrial Relations

The Payment of Wages Act, 1936

Sec 2
(vi) "wages" means all remuneration (whether by way of salary allowances or otherwise) expressed in terms of money or capable of being so expressed which would if the terms of employment express or implied were fulfilled by payable to a person employed in respect of his employment or of work done in such employment and includes -

(a) any remuneration payable under any award or settlement between the parties or order of a court;
(b) any remuneration to which the person employed is entitled in respect of overtime work or holidays or any leave period;
(c) any additional remuneration payable under the terms of employment (whether called a bonus or by any other name);
 (d) any sum which by reason of the termination of employment of the person employed is payable under any law contract or instrument which provides for the payment of such sum whether with or without deductions but does not provide for the time within which the payment is to be made;

(e) any sum to which the person employed is entitled under any scheme framed under any law for the time being in force, but does not include -

(1) any bonus (whether under a scheme of profit sharing or otherwise) which does not form part of the remuneration payable under the terms of employment or which is not payable under any award or settlement between the parties or order of a court;
(2) the value of any house-accommodation or of the supply of light water medical attendance or other amenity or of any service excluded from the computation of wages by a general or special order of the State Government;
(3) any contribution paid by the employer to any pension or provident fund and the interest which may have accrued thereon;
(4) any travelling allowance or the value of any travelling concession;
(5) any sum paid to the employed person to defray special expenses entailed on him by the nature of his employment; or
(6) any gratuity payable on the termination of employment in cases other than those specified in sub-clause (d).

Meaning and Definition of Wage

In the ordinary language the term wages implies 'reward' to the labourers for the services rendered by them. It may be paid daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, per hour or per unit. Services rendered by the labourer include both physical and mental services.

In the words of Benham. "Wages are a sum of money paid under contract by an employer to a worker for services rendered."

According to ILO " Wages refer to that payment which is made by the employers to the labourer for his services hired on the conditions of payment per hour, per day, per week or per fortnight."

Appropriate Definition:
Wages refer to that reward which is received from the employer for the services rendered by the labourer per week, per month, per fortnight or per unit It includes allowances also.

  • Subsistence Wage: - The wage that can meet only bare physical needs of a worker and his family is called subsistence wage.
  • Minimum Wage: - Minimum wage is the wage that is able to provide not only for bare physical needs but also for preservation of efficiency of worker plus some measure of education, health and other things.
  • Fair Wage: - Fair wages is an adjustable step that moves up according to the capacity of the industry to pay, and the prevailing rates of wages in the area of industry.
  • Living Wage:- Living wage is that which workers can maintain the health and decency, a measure of comfort and some insurance against the more important misfortune of lie.

In any even the minimum wage must be paid irrespective of the extent of profits, the financial condition of the establishment or the availability of workmen at lower wages. The wages must be fair, i.e. sufficiently high to provide standard family with ,food, shelter, clothing, medical care and education of children appropriate to the workmen. A fair wage lies between the minimum wage and the living wage which is the goal. Wages must be paid on an industry wise and region basis having due regard to the financial capacity of the unit.