Job Descriptions and Job Specifications


Job Description
is a broad and written statement of a specific job in the organisation, based on the findings of a the job analysis. Job Description generally includes duties, purpose, responsibilities, scope, and working conditions of a job along with the title of the job, and the name or designation of the person to whom the employee will reports. Job description usually forms the basis of job specification.


Job Descriptions and Job Specifications

Job Descriptions
Job description -where the details regarding the job are given.
  • It is a list of job duties, responsibilities,reporting, relationships, working conditions and supervisory responsibilities - one product of the job analysis --- Gary Dessler
  • Job description is a broad, general, and written statement of a specific job, based on the findings of a job analysis. It generally includes duties, purpose, responsibilities, scope, and working conditions of a job along with the job's title, and the name or designation of the person to whom the employee reports. Job description usually forms the basis of job specification.

    Capture all key aspects of your education, work experience and achievements in your profile, says Judhajit Das, chief HR, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance. "It helps if you write detailed job descriptions as it makes it that much easier to be spotted by a prospective headhunter," he says.

Sample
Job Description
:




Job Description practical application and use in legal issues.

Above mentioned notes is one side of the coin. The other side of the coin has to be known that is need to provide job description document to every employee in the organisation.

Every employee must be provided with his job description as to how to perform his duties, limitations or boundaries in his duties, to whom he has to report and answerable, code of conduct, punctuality and discipline and safety procedure that is to be followed in case of Performing hazardous jobs. (This practice is being followed by few organisations in United States ) Having a job description document with employee, helps employer in dealing with employees especially in the circumstances when an employee proceed legally against employer for rejecting his/her claiming of compensation  for the accident happened during the course of employment or for taking disciplinary action against  employees who committed wrong.

Circumstances could be like; employees especially who does hazardous jobs, must follow safety measures which are framed by the safety officer to avoid accidents. To those  employees if any accident happens, he may claim for compensation on the statutory grounds framed by the Legislature. Here it is the task of HR manager to crosscheck with actual safety measures to be followed and safety measures followed at the time of occurrence of accident. If it is found that the victim did not follow actual safety measures to be followed, he may not be eligible to claim the compensation. The victim of accident cannot claim that he was not aware of safety measures to be followed while performing such job, since he was already provided with job description document having all details of his job as to how to be in his job. if it is found that the victim followed actual and safety measures to be followed, the victim has right to claim compensation in accordance with the statutory provisions framed by the Legislature (labour laws). (In India, Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923 is the law that deals with claiming of conversation by employees who succumbed to accident during the course of their employment)

likewise; when an employee proceed legally against employer for taking disciplinary action against employee, it is a task of HR manager to crosschecks with predefined in-disciplinary activities mentioned in the job description which was already provided to that employee. 

Job Specifications;
 

John specification is a statement in which we explain the qualities required by people applying for the job.
  • Job specification as a statement of minimum qualification that person must posses to perform a given job successfully --- Stephen. P . Robbins & Marry Coutler
  • Job specification is a statement of employee characteristics and qualifications required for satisfactory performance of defined duties and tasks comprising a specific job or function. Job specification is derived from job analysis.
While the job description describes activities to be done, it is job specifications that list the knowledge, skills, and abilities an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily. Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) include education, experience, work skill requirements, personal abilities, and mental and physical requirements. Job specifications for a data entry operator might include a required educational level, a certain number of months of experience, a typing ability of 60 words per minute, a high degree of visual concentration, and ability to work under time pressure. It is important to note that accurate job specifications identify what KSAs a person needs to do the job, not necessarily what qualifications the current employee possesses.

It can be explained with the help of the following diagram






Components of a Job Specification

Experience: Number of years of experience in the job you are seeking to fill. Number of years of work experience required for the selected candidate. Note whether the position requires progressively more complex and responsible experience, and supervisory or managerial experience.

Education: State what degrees, training, or certifications are required for the position.

Required Skills, Knowledge and Characteristics: State the skills, knowledge, and personal characteristics of individuals who have successfully performed this job. Or, use the job analysis data to determine the attributes you need from your “ideal” candidate. Your recruiting planning meeting or email participants can also help determine these requirements for the job specification.

Facts [+]

Workers holding a bachelor's degree who make less than $19,800 a year are considered "overqualified." Nearly eight percent of U.S. residents are considered overqualified, according to a recent Migration Policy Institute study of Census Bureau data. This compares to nearly 24 percent of foreign-born, non-citizen residents that are considered overqualified.