You would recall that selection process involves rejection of unsuitable or less suitable applicants. This may be done at any of the successive hurdles which an applicant must cross. These hurdles act as screens designed to eliminate an unqualified applicant at any point in the process. This technique is known as the ‘successive hurdles technique’. Those who qualify a hurdle go to the next one; those who do not qualify are dropped out. Not all selection processes, however, include these hurdles. The complexity of the process usually increases with the level and responsibility of the position to be filled. Moreover, these hurdles need not necessarily be placed in the same order. Their arrangement may differ from organisation to organization.
The HR Employment Manager directs the organization's recruitment, screening, interviewing, selection, and placement activities. They manage employment functions and staff members. In addition, they extend job offers and establish starting salaries, arrange advertising or employment agency services, and produce affirmative action or college recruiting programs.
The HR Recruiter screens and interviews potential employees on behalf of the organization. They conduct pre-employment tests and reference checks as well as provide training and guidance to hiring managers on policies, process, and regulatory issues. Additionally, they may place employment advertisements and analyze reports and trends.
Initial Screening or Preliminary Interview [Stage 1]
This is a sorting process in which prospective applicants are given the necessary information about the nature of the job and also, necessary information is elicited from the candidates about their education, experience, skill, salary expected, etc. If the candidate is found to be suitable, he is selected for further process and, if not, he is eliminated. This is a crude screening and can be done across the counter in the organization’s employment offices. This is done by a junior executive in the personnel department. Due care should be taken so that suitable candidates are not turned down in a hurry. Since this provides personal contact for an individual with the company, the interviewer should be courteous, kind, receptive and informal.
When a candidate is found suitable, an application form is given to him to fill in and submit.
Application Scrutiny [Stage 2]
Reference to nationality, race, caste, religion and place of birth has been regarded as evidence of discriminatory attitudes and should be avoided. An application form should be designed to serve as a highly effective preliminary screening device, particularly, when applications arc received in direct response to an advertisement and without any preliminary interview.
The application can be used in two ways: (i) to find out on the basis of information contained therein as to the chances of success of the candidate in the job for which he is applying, and (ii) to provide a starting point for the interview.
It is often possible to reject candidates on the basis of scrutiny of the applications as they are found to be lacking in educational standards, experience or some other relevant eligibility and traits.
Paper resume could be thing of the past
WASHINGTON: Two young Indian-American entrepreneurs are attempting to make the traditional paper resume a thing of the past by connecting the job seeker and the employer through video resumes.
The Palo Alto Mayor, Yiaway Yeh, and several other top corporate leaders of the city - which is known as the heart of the Silicon Valley -- lined up last Thursday in its downtown to inaugurate the new office of GetHired.Com, which currently has just 14 employees.
GetHired.com is the first
job board to embed video capabilities directly into its social
recruiting platform so that job seekers can record and submit personal,
dynamic responses to an employer's most pressing pre-screening questions
at the start of the hiring process.
As a result, employers are able to quickly find top candidates with good communication skills who are a culturally fit for their organisation, he notes.
"GetHired.com combines the visibility of a job board with the functionality of an applicant tracking system - allowing employers to find and pre-screen candidates using audio and video, conduct interviews in real-time and manage the entire on boarding process," he said.
SELECTION TESTS [Stage 3]
A test is a sample of an aspect of an individual’s behavior, performance or attitude. It can also be a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more persons.
Purpose of Tests: The basic assumption underlying the use of tests in personnel selection is that individuals are different in their job-related abilities and skills and that these skills can be adequately and accurately measured.
Tests seek to eliminate the possibility of prejudice on the part of the interviewer or supervisor. Potential ability only will govern selection decisions.
The other major advantage is that the tests may uncover qualifications and talents that would not be detected by interviews or by listing of education and job experience.
Types of Tests: The various tests used in selection can be put in to four categories:
a) Achievement or Intelligence Tests,
b) Aptitude or Potential Ability Tests,
c) Personality Tests, and (d) Interest Tests.
These tests and what they measure are described below.
a) Achievement or Intelligence Tests
These are also called ‘proficiency tests’. These measure the skill or knowledge which is acquired as a result of a training programme and on the job experience. These measure what the applicant can do. These are of two types:
Test for Measuring job Knowledge: These are known as ‘Trade Tests’. These are administered to determine knowledge of typing, shorthand and in operating calculators, adding machines, dictating and transcribing machines or simple mechanical equipment. These are primarily oral tests consisting of a series of questions which are believed to be satisfactorily answered only by those who know and thoroughly understand the trade or occupation. Oral tests may be supplemented by written, picture or performance types.
Work Sample Tests: These measure the proficiency with which equipment can be handled by the candidate. This is done by giving him a piece of work to judge how efficiently he does it. For example, a typing test would provide the material to be typed and note the time taken and mistakes committed.
b) Aptitude or Potential Ability Tests
These tests measure the latent ability of a candidate to learn a new job or skill. Through these tests you can detect peculiarity or defects in a person’s sensory or intellectual capacity. These focus attention on particular types of talent such as learning, reasoning and mechanical or musical aptitude. ’Instruments’ used are variously described as tests of ‘intelligence’, ‘mental ability’, ‘mental alertness’, or simply as ‘personnel tests’.
These are of three types:
i) Mental Tests: These measure the overall intellectual ability or the intelligence quotient (I.Q.) of a person and enable us to know whether he has the mental capacity to deal with new problems. These determine an employee’s fluency in language, memory, interaction, reasoning, speed of perception, and spatial visualisation.
ii) Mechanical Aptitude Tests: These measure the capacity of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. These are useful when apprentices, machinists, mechanics, maintenance workers, and mechanical technicians are to be selected.
iii) Psychomotor or Skill Tests: These measure a person’s ability to do a specific job. These are administered to determine mental dexterity or motor ability and similar attributes involving muscular movement, control and coordination. These are primarily used in the selection of workers who have to perform semi-skilled and repetitive jobs, like assembly work, packing, testing, inspection and so on.
c) Personality Tests
These discover clues to an individual’s value system, his emotional reactions, maturity and his characteristic mood. The tests help in assessing a person’s motivation, his ability to adjust himself to the stresses of everyday life and his capacity for interpersonal relations and for projecting an impressive image of himself. They are expressed in terms of the relative significance of such traits of a person as self-confidence, ambition, tact, emotional control, optimism, decisiveness, sociability, conformity, objectivity, patience, fear, distrust, initiative, judgement, dominance, impulsiveness, sympathy, integrity, and stability. These tests are given to predict potential performance and success for supervisory or managerial jobs. The personality tests are basically of three types:
i) Objective Tests: These measure neurotic tendencies, self-sufficiency, dominance, submission and self-confidence.
ii) Projective Tests: In these tests, a candidate is asked to project his own interpretation onto certain standard stimuli. The way in which he responds to these stimuli depends on his own values, motives and personality.
iii) Situation Tests: These measure an applicant’s reaction when he is placed in a peculiar situation, his ability to undergo stress and his demonstration of ingenuity under pressure. These tests usually relate to a leaderless group situation, in which some problems are posed to a group and its members are asked to reach some conclusions without the help of a leader.
d) Interest Tests
These tests are designed to discover a person’s areas of interest and to identify the kind of work that will satisfy him. The interest tests are used for vocational guidance, and are assessed in the form of answers to a well-prepared questionnaire.
INTERVIEW [Stage 4]
Personal interview is the most universally used tool in employee selection process.
The following are examples of the most commonly asked illegal job interview questions. Are you married? Do you have children? How old are you? Did you graduate from high school or college? Have you ever been arrested? How much do you weigh? What country are you from? What is your native language? Are you handicapped?
Interview Meaning and Purpose:
Interview is the process of interaction between two parties who are interviewer/interviewers and interviewee. Interviewer is a person/employer who does interview to candidates seeking job. Interviewee is a person who gets interviewed by the interviewer/interviewers. The very purpose of calling the candidates for interview is to see candidates face-to-face and to know his or her attitude, behaviour, communication skills, personal/family details, work experience, interests and hobbies, subject knowledge. Sometimes interview might be platform to negotiate salary and other benefits offered to candidate if got selected. In stage of an interview, candidate may not be stressed on questions related to various related subjects because the candidate has been already passed through those tests and proved, hence called for interview.
The most common interview mistake that job candidates make is talking
too much during the interview, according to a recent survey of
recruiters conducted by executive search firm Korn/Ferry International.
Other common mistakes cited by recruiters include lack of knowledge
about the company or position, over-inflated ego and appearing overly
Types of Interview
This is may take place anywhere. The employer or a manager in the personnal department, may ask a few questions, like name, place of birth, previous experience, etc. It is not planned and is used widely when the labour market is tight and you need workers very badly. A friend or a relative of the employer may take a candidate to the house of the employer or manager where this type of interview may be conducted.
This held in a more formal atmosphere in the employment office by the employment officer with the help of well-structured questions. The time and place of the interview are stipulated by the employment office.
This is a formal interview carefully planned. The interviewer has a plan of action worked out in relation to time to be devoted to each candidate, type of information to be sought, information to be given, the modality of interview and so on. He may use the plan with some amount of flexibility.
This is also a planned interview but planned to a higher degree of accuracy, precision and exactitude. A list of questions and areas are carefully prepared. The interviewer goes down the list of questions, asking them one after another.
This is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely. The interviewer is a careful and patient listener, prodding whenever the candidate is silent. The idea is to give the candidate complete freedom to ‘sell’ himself without encumbrances of the interviewer’s questions.
This is designed to intensively examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on a particular subject to special interest to the candidate. The theory behind it is that if the candidate is found good in his area of special interest, the chances are high that if given a job he would take serious interest in it.
This is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by putting him under conditions of stress and strain. This is very useful to test the behavior of individuals under disagreeable and trying situations.
This is designed to see how the candidates react to and against each other. All the candidates may be brought together in the office and they may be interviewed. The candidates may, alternatively, be given a topic for discussion and be observed as to who will lead the discussion, how they will participate in the discussion, how each will make his presentation and how they will react to each other’s views and presentation.
This is done by members of the interview board or a selection committee. This is done usually for supervisory and managerial positions. It pools the collective judgement and wisdom of members of the panel. The candidate may be asked to meet the panel individually for a fairly lengthy interview.
Structured job interview
Structured job interview techniques rely on pre-established questions and answers based on job descriptions and requirements. Job candidate responses to questions are rated against the pre-established answers, producing comparable interviews across all candidates. Structured job interviewing also keeps job interviews on track in terms of time and subject matter.
Sample interview questions
To know more about various types of interview questions may be put for inexperienced and freshers, click side heading of Sample interview questions. This website consisting questions of interview questions, may be helpful for yourself to prepare and have an idea, before facing an interview for the first time.
A panel job interview is considered the most stressful for job candidates as they face multiple interviewers who take turns asking questions. Panel interviews are more time efficient and allow decision makers to obtain the same information for making a hiring decision. Panel interviews require proper planning in order to avoid duplicate questions and to establish a rapport during the interview.
Behavioral (experience-based or patterned behavioral) interviews are past-oriented in that they ask respondents to relate what they did in past jobs or life situations that are relevant to the particular job relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities required for success The idea is that past behavior is the best predictor of future performance in similar situations. By asking questions about how job applicants have handled situations in the past that are similar to those they will face on the job, employers can gauge how they might perform in future situations.
Behavioral job interviewing was developed in the 1970s. Nearly 30% of all organizations use behavioral
interviewing to some degree.
Eighty-five percent of all job failures are due to lack of appropriate work habits or behavioral issues rather than lack of technical skills. Most HR experts believe that "behavior-based" job interview techniques provide indicators of a future success. Asking a job candidate how they did something, in addition to what they did, can reveal key aspects of their personalities.
Interview Rating: Important aspects of personality can be categorized under the following seven main headings:
- Physical Make-up: Health, physique, age, appearance, bearing, speech.
- Attainments: Education, occupational training and experience.
- Intelligence: Basic and ‘effective’.
- Special Aptitudes: Written and oral fluency of expression, numeracy, organizational ability, administrative skill.
- Interests: Intellectual, practical, physically active, social, artistic
- Disposition: Self-reliance, nature, motivation, acceptability.
- Circumstances: Domestic, social background and experience, future prospects.
This is called ‘The Seven Point Plan’. The importance of each of these points will vary from organization to organization and from job to job. Hence, these should be assigned weight-age according to their degree of importance for the job.
On the basis of information gathered through an interview, each candidate should be rated in respect of each point given above as: (i) outstanding, (ii) good, (iii) above average, (iv) below average or (v) unsatisfactory. Marks should be allotted to each of these, and the score for each point is arrived at by multiplying it by weights and the total of all these will determine the final position of a candidate at the interview.
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION [Stage 5]
Applicant who get over one or more of the preliminary hurdles are sent for a physical examination either to the organization’s physician or to a medical officer approved for the purpose.
Purposes: A physical examination serves the following purposes:
- It gives an indication regarding fitness of a candidate for the job concerned.
- It discovers existing disabilities and obtains a record thereof, which may be
- It helps in preventing employment of those suffering from some type of contagious diseases.
- It helps in placing those who are otherwise employable but whose physical handicaps may necessitate assignment only to specified jobs.
- The applicant’s medical history.
- His physical measurements—height, weight, etc.
- General examination—skin, musculature and joints.
- Specia1 senses—visual and auditory activity.
- Clinical examination—eyes, ears, nose, throat and teeth.
- Examination of chest and lungs.
- Check-up of blood pressure and heart.
- Pathological tests of urine, blood etc.
- X-ray examination of chest and other parts of the body.
- Neuro-psychiatric examination, particularly when medical history or a physician’s observations indicate an adjustment problem.
- You would realize that the importance of these characteristics varies from job to job and, therefore, different weightages have to be given to each far an overall evaluation.
REFERENCE CHECKS [Stage 6]
The applicant is asked to mention in his application the names and addresses of three such persons who usually know him well. These may be his previous employers, friends, or professional colleagues. They are approached by mail or telephone and requested ta furnish their frank opinion, without incurring any liability, about the candidate either on specified points or in general. They are assured that all information supplied would be kept confidential. Yet, often either no response is received or it is generally a favorable response.
According to a Society for Human Resource Management survey of human resources professionals, employee referral programs (ERPs) were found to be one of the most cost-effective recruiting methods available. Eight of ten survey respondents said that ERPs are more cost-effective than job search firms. Seven of ten said they are more cost-effective than other recruiting practices.
BACK GROUND VERIFICATION [Stage 7]
The background screening process involves carrying out checks at different levels, from education, employment, address check and criminal record to reference checks, checks against global regulatory and compliance databases, identity checks, drug testing, and resume validation. The companies entered into employee background verification services in 2010 because of fake documents, degrees from fake universities or unrecognised colleges are the major educational discrepancies.
For example, at entry level, candidates may only have their last/highest educational qualification, current address, drug and criminal checks conducted; while for candidates at relatively senior levels, checks such as more than one educational qualification, addresses for five to seven years, drug tests, criminal checks, regulatory and compliance database checks and employment checks are conducted.
Presumption that out of 10 resumes 4 or having fake information regarding the job experience and academic qualifications. Due to this recruiters are now employing specialised agencies which have newly come-up for background verification of candidates, this is because of raise in number of fresh graduates seeking employment and employees those who want shift their career with increase in salary
Five ways to conduct informal employee checks
Background and reference checks have become the golden rule of hiring in large companies due to instances of fraud or inflated cvs, but come with heavy costs. ET shares how one can save through informal background checks.
1.Scan social networks
Social networking sites like Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter or Orkut can be a happy hunting ground to find out about a candidate's details. "Facebook and LinkedIn are two forums which give real feedback about a candidate, since the references they give will always hold them in good stead," says HR firm Aspire Human Capital CEO Amit Bhatia.
Job-seekers asked for Facebook passwords
SEATTLE: When Justin Bassett interviewed for a new job, he expected the usual questions about experience and references. So he was astonished when the interviewer asked for something else: his Facebook username and password.
Bassett, a New York City statistician, had just finished answering a few character questions when the interviewer turned to her computer to search for his Facebook page. But she couldn't see his private profile. She turned back and asked him to hand over his login information.Bassett refused and withdrew his application, saying he didn't want to work for a company that would seek personal information.
But as the job market steadily improves, other job candidates are confronting the same question from prospective employers, and some of them cannot afford to say no. In their efforts to vet applicants, some companies and government agencies are going beyond merely glancing at a person's social networking profiles and instead asking to log in as the user to have a look around.
"It's akin to requiring someone's house keys," said Orin Kerr, a George Washington University law professor who calls it "an egregious privacy violation." Questions have been raised about the legality of the practice, which is also the focus of proposed legislation in Illinois and Maryland that would forbid public agencies from asking for access to social networks.
2.Use your connections
Try and leverage your own business network and contacts to find out more about a candidate. "The network will always give rational feedback on a candidate. One can also tap business contacts in the same company where the prospective candidate is currently employed to get as much details," says Ma Foi Randstad MD & CEO E Balaji.
4.Just run a search
Sometimes, an internet search about a candidate can throw up information that can help you form an opinion about a candidate. This is more so for middle and senior managers.
5.Check with affiliates
These days, several professionals are affiliated with professional organisations. "A call, email or visit to such affiliate organisations will provide details and help to verify qualifications and work experience," says Reshmi Ghosh, an HR consultant.
HR experts suggest spending as much time on undertaking a background check as on interviewing a candidate.
PLACEMENT [Stage 8]
Sometimes a particular person is selected for a given jab. Often more than one person may be selected for the jobs of similar nature. In the second case, individual employees have to be put under individual supervisors with the approval of the latter. In the first case also his approval is also necessary but it should be done early in the selection process.
A proper placement reduces employee turnover, absenteeism and accident rates and improves morale.
ADP Screening and Selection Services conducted nearly five million employee background checks last year. Forty-nine percent of the education, employment, and credential verifications had inconsistencies between what the applicants provided and what the source reported. Six percent of the information differences were received with negative remarks from the source inregard to the applicant.