Leadership methods from around the world
DIPLOMATIC TACTFUL • TRADITIONAL
British managers are tactful, diplomatic, casual, laid back, willing to compromise and seeking to be fair. When the occasion warrants it. British managers can be as flexible and ruthless as their American cousins, but less explicitly and with disarming poise.
DEMOCRATIC • GOAL-ORIENTED • INDIVIDUALISTIC
American managers are aggressive, assertive, vigorous, goal and action oriented, optimistic, confident, and ready for change. They are suited for teamwork and corporate spirit, but their first interest is advancing and nurturing their own career.
AUTOCRATIC • NEPOTISM • SOCIAL
Latin / Arabic managers tends to be autocratic, authority is centered on the chief executive and nepotism is ubiquitous among businesses. Close family tends to figure prominently in key positions. Employees in general show that they are willing and trusting of their employers.
BUREAUCRATIC • INDIVIDUALISM • NO DEMOCRACY
Efforts mode by mangers to promote business through official channels only are likely to founder on the rocks of bureaucracy and Russian apathy. Using key people and personal alliances, the 'system' is often bypassed and a result achieved.
LOW PROFILE - HANDS ON-LEAD FROM THE FRONT
Finnish leaders tend to be fairly low profile but are decisive when needed. They aren't afraid to get hands on and work well in teams but they sit just outside the 'circle’. Finnish leaders lead from the front and manage to keep the right balance between authoritarianism and consultative style.
INDIVIDUALISTIC • CONSERVATISM • INDEPENDENT
Latvians are individualistic. Everybody wants to be not so much a leader, but a manager in his or her own right. However, there is a tendency to respect firm, confident, knowledgeable leadership. Managers address staff in a cool, measured manner, reacting against the former rhetorical style of the Russians.
DEMOCRACY • CENTEREDNESS • STUBBORN
In democratic Norway, the boss is very much in the centre of things and the staff enjoys access to them most of the time. Middle mangers' opinions are heard and acted upon in egalitarian (the belief that everyone is equal and should have the same rights and opportunities) fashion, but top executives rarely abandon responsibility and accountability.
DECENTRALIZED • DEMOCRATIC • TRADITIONAL
The Swedish concept of leadership and management differs considerably from others being reasonably decentralized and enterprises ore essentially democratic. Modern Swedish leadership reflects their embrace of the belief that all people are equal, which has traditional and cultural roots.
PRAGMATIC QUICK THINKING • RAPID DECISION MAKING
Australian managers must sit in the ring with the 'mates' from this position, once it is accepted that they will not pull rank, they exert more influence than their Swedish counterparts, as the semi-Americanized nature of Australian business requires quick thinking and rapid decision making.
CULTURAL • ROOTED PRACTICES • CONSENSUS RULE
Asian countries tend to have deep cultural dynamics embedded in deeply rooted practices and customs. Business meetings tend to hove a section of time allotted for socialising and chit-chat. Leadership is portrayed as a circle, where consensus rule is valued and leaders ore seen as benevolent.
CONSENSUS • STATE HAS FINAL NEPOTISM
Consensus is highly valued in China. In companies controlled by the state, a leadership group will decide policy. In the expansion of capitalist companies, leaders are being chosen for their competence. In family businesses the senior male is the patriarch and tends to follow the nepotistic structure.
INDIVIDUALISTIC • PREFER TO LEAD • CAPABLE
Estonians are very individualistic. Each person feels capable and prefers to lead rather than be led. They have a deep sense of capability. They chose incredibly young leaders to guide them through the first delicate years after Soviet withdrawal. Status is gained in Estonia by achievement, decisiveness and energy.
AUTOCRATIC • PATERNALISTIC • INTERDEPENDENT
French leadership style tends to be autocratic and paternalistic. For the French reputation of the organisation, as well as the social and political goals come first over immediate attainable objectives. Due to the consolidated power in the chief executive, opinions of the middle management sometimes fall on deaf ears.
INDEPENDENT • NATIONAL IDENTITY • GENEROUS
The older generation of Lithuanian managers has not completely freed themselves of bureaucratic habits from Soviet times, but young leadership is developing a more dynamic style, with Nordic encouragement. Lithuanian women are beginning to play vigorous roles in business and politics.
HONOUR • PERSONAL INTEGRITY • MERITOCRACY
In Polish history, royals and nobles hove figured largely as leaders and organizers. Honour and revenge are on-going concepts in the Polish mind, as are grace, personal integrity, fearlessness and gallantry toward women. Meritocracy now dominates advancement in Polish society.
DEMOCRATIC • SECULARISM • WESTERN-ORIENTED
For most of Turkish history, power has been concentrated in a few hands. Sultans and Caliphs were all-powerful, and autocratic leadership was a fact of life. Kemal Ataturk changed all that and founded a democratic republic. Ataturk gave women the vote in 1934, and there has been one female prime minister.
FORMAL HIERARCHICAL SINCERE
There is a clear chain of command in each department, information and instructions are passed down from the top. German management is not exclusively autocratic. While hierarchy of each department is clear, considerable value is placed on consensus. Strict rules, regulations and procedures are expected.
HUMANISTIC - NEPOTISM-TRADITIONAL
Nepotism is a way of life in traditional Indian companies. Family members hold key positions and work in close unison. Policy is also dictated by the trade group, for example fruit merchants & jewellers. These groups work in concert and come to each other's aid in difficult times.
INDIFFERENT - HIERARCHY - FAMILY
Under former leaders Sukarno and Suharto, leadership was exercised principally by the military and was therefore was autocratic. The indifferent nature of many Indonesians to the business process has, however, resulted in a lot of business management being entrusted to a resident Chinese professional class.
ACHIEVEMENT-BASED • DIRECT • ARGUMENTATIVE
With no aristocracy. Israeli society attaches importance to achievement and dynamism when looking for leadership. The Israel-Palestine conflict means leadership choices can't be separated from political and security-bound realities. Religious leaders also exert considerable influence on Israeli life.
CONFUCIAN HIERARCHY • CULTURAL • INTERDEPENDENT
Japanese executives hove great power with Confucian hierarchy, but actually have little involvement in the everyday affairs of the company, but have final say. Ideas often originate on the factory floor. These ideas are voted on and make their way up the company hierarchy.
DECISIVE-CONSENSUS • ACHIEVEMENT
Leadership in the Netherlands is based on merit, competence and achievement. Mangers are vigorous and decisive, but consensus is mandatory because there are many key players in the decision-making process. Debates lead to action, taken at the top, but with constant reference to the 'ranks'.
AUTOCRATIC • CHARISMATIC • NEPOTISM
Spanish leaders are autocratic and charismatic. Who work less from logic than from intuition, and pride themselves on their personal influence on all their staff members. Tending to be charismatic, they are able to persuade and inspire at all levels. Nepotism (giving unfair advantages to your own family if you are in a position of power, especially by giving them jobs) is also common in many companies. Spanish managers often see their decisions as irreversible.